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Alternatively, the word eofor already existed as an Old English word for wild swine, which is a cognate of the current Low Saxon word eaver and Dutch ever.
The Anglo-Saxon newcomers probably interpreted the ebor part as eofor, and -rac as ric (meaning rich), while -um was (and is) a common abbreviation of the Saxon -heem, meaning home. As is common in Saxon place names, the -um part gradually faded; eoforic.
Old Irish ibar "yew-tree", Welsh efwr "alder buckthorn", Breton evor "alder buckthorn") and suffix *-āko(n) "place" (cf.
Welsh -og) meaning either "place of the yew trees" (cf.
When the Danish army conquered the city in 866, its name became Jórvík.
Jórvík, meanwhile, gradually reduced to York in the centuries after the Conquest, moving from the Middle English Yerk in the 14th century through Yourke in the 16th century to Yarke in the 17th century.
In the following century Alcuin of York came to the cathedral school of York.
He had a long career as a teacher and scholar, first at the school at York now known as St Peter's School, founded in 627 AD, and later as Charlemagne's leading advisor on ecclesiastical and educational affairs.
The University of York and health services have become major employers, whilst tourism has become an important element of the local economy.
In 866, Northumbria was in the midst of internecine struggles when the Vikings raided and captured York.
Under Viking rule the city became a major river port, part of the extensive Viking trading routes throughout northern Europe.
The last ruler of an independent Jórvík, Eric Bloodaxe, was driven from the city in 954 AD by King Eadred in his successful attempt to complete the unification of England.
In 1068, two years after the Norman conquest of England, the people of York rebelled.